[125][126] Potassium chloride is used in the United States for lethal injection executions. Information system on hazardous substances (GESTIS); German Social Accident Insurance (DGUV); Glinkastraße 40. [125], This article is about the chemical element. McNaught, A. D. and Wilkinson,A. 0.235 nm. Potassium bisulfite (KHSO3) is used as a food preservative, for example in wine and beer-making (but not in meats). 0.86 g.cm-3 at 0 °C. Density of Potassium is 0.856g/cm3. Electronic shell [ Ar ] 4s 1. eds. [109], Potassium hydroxide KOH is a strong base, which is used in industry to neutralize strong and weak acids, to control pH and to manufacture potassium salts. A. McCleverty and T. J. Meyer (eds. Potassium metal can react violently with water producing potassium hydroxide (KOH) and hydrogen gas. Mechanical properties of Potassium comprise of its density, tensile strength, viscosity, vapor pressure Vanderwaals radius . Only a very few fertilizers contain potassium nitrate. [122], During storage, potassium forms peroxides and superoxides. [119] The ternary alloy of 12% Na, 47% K and 41% Cs has the lowest melting point of −78 °C of any metallic compound. The name is derived from the english word potash. Finely powdered potassium ignites in air at room temperature. Potassium bromate (KBrO3) is a strong oxidizer (E924), used to improve dough strength and rise height. ), CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of November 2020 (, CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)", Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, "The Sodium and Potassium Content of Sea Water", "Detailed composition of seawater at 3.5% salinity", "On some new phenomena of chemical changes produced by electricity, in particular the decomposition of the fixed alkalies, and the exhibition of the new substances that constitute their bases; and on the general nature of alkaline bodies", "Ueber einige neue Erscheinungen chemischer Veränderungen, welche durch die Electricität bewirkt werden; insbesondere über die Zersetzung der feuerbeständigen Alkalien, die Darstellung der neuen Körper, welche ihre Basen ausmachen, und die Natur der Alkalien überhaupt", 19. Relation of ionic intakes to the renal conservation of potassium", "Crystal structure and mechanism of a calcium-gated potassium channel", "Potassium: Dietary Reference Intakes for Adequacy", "Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium – Publication", "Energy and nutrient intake in the European Union", "Potassium Content of Selected Foods per Common Measure, sorted by nutrient content", "Effects of oral potassium on blood pressure. Both peroxides and superoxides may react explosively with metallic potassium. Potassium carbonate (K2CO3 or potash) is used in the manufacture of glass, soap, color TV tubes, fluorescent lamps, textile dyes and pigments. One example is potassium superoxide, KO2, an orange solid that acts as a portable source of oxygen and a carbon dioxide absorber. Megatons of these compounds are produced annually. [107][108], Major potassium chemicals are potassium hydroxide, potassium carbonate, potassium sulfate, and potassium chloride. [97] Furthermore, potassium can play a key role in nutrient cycling by controlling litter composition. [124], Ingestion of large amounts of potassium compounds can lead to hyperkalemia, strongly influencing the cardiovascular system. Because its density is 0.89 g/cm3, burning potassium floats in water that exposes it to atmospheric oxygen. I. [118], An alloy of sodium and potassium, NaK is a liquid used as a heat-transfer medium and a desiccant for producing dry and air-free solvents. However, there are interesting facts about Potassium that most don't know about. density of potassium is equal to 862 kg/m³; at 20°C (68°F or 293.15K) at standard atmospheric pressure . It is also used to saponify fats and oils, in industrial cleaners, and in hydrolysis reactions, for example of esters. ), The reactive feed-forward system refers to an incompletely understood system that induces renal potassium secretion in response to potassium ingestion prior to any rise in the plasma potassium. [104] Low blood potassium may occur due to vomiting, diarrhea, or certain medications. It can also be used in reactive distillation. (1997). daytime for humans, nighttime for rodents) independent of the presence, amount, or absence of potassium ingestion. ; Washington, DC 20230. Radioactive Human Body", "Structural and thermodynamic properties of selective ion binding in a K+ channel", "Serum Potassium Levels and Mortality in Acute Myocardial Infarction", "The relationship between estimated sodium and potassium excretion and subsequent renal outcomes", "An Integrated View of Potassium Homeostasis", "Micropuncture study of nephron function in the rhesus monkey", "Experimental potassium depletion in normal human subjects. Density. [16], Metallic potassium is used in several types of magnetometers.[120]. Potassium weighs 0.862 gram per cubic centimeter or 862 kilogram per cubic meter, i.e. The other is passive and allows potassium to leak out of the cell. 63.2 °C. It is an intensive property, which is mathematically defined as mass divided by volume: One is active and pumps sodium out of, and potassium into, the cell. Potassium salts in the form of saltpetre (potassium nitrate, KNO 3), alum (potassium aluminium sulfate, KAl(SO 4) 2), and potash (potassium carbonate, K 2 CO 3) have been known for centuries.They were used in gunpowder, dyeing, and soap making. Meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials", "Potassium Intake, Stroke, and Cardiovascular Disease: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies", "Effects of potassium chloride and potassium bicarbonate on endothelial function, cardiovascular risk factors, and bone turnover in mild hypertensives", "Mineral Commodity Summaries 2008:Potash", 10.1002/0471238961.1615200103080921.a01.pub2, "Potassium chloride medical facts from Drugs.com", Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, "DOE Handbook-Alkali Metals Sodium, Potassium, NaK, and Lithium", "Potassium Chloride and Potassium Permanganate", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Potassium&oldid=990959783, Biology and pharmacology of chemical elements, CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of November 2020, CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2017, Articles with Encyclopædia Britannica links, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. [110][111], Potassium nitrate (KNO3) or saltpeter is obtained from natural sources such as guano and evaporites or manufactured via the Haber process; it is the oxidant in gunpowder (black powder) and an important agricultural fertilizer. resting cellular-membrane potential and the propagation of action potentials in neuronal, muscular, and cardiac tissue. Density is defined as the mass per unit volume. [115][116], Another example is potassium cobaltinitrite, K3[Co(NO2)6], which is used as artist's pigment under the name of Aureolin or Cobalt Yellow. Ionic radius. Last accessed: 29 August 2020 (gestis-en.itrust.de). Due to the electrostatic and chemical properties, The reactive negative-feedback system refers to the system that induces renal secretion of potassium in response to a rise in the plasma potassium (potassium ingestion, shift out of cells, or intravenous infusion.